Seizures in Fragile X Syndrome
The largest and most definitive study yet published on seizures in Fragile X syndrome↗ was completed using the Fragile X Online Registry with Accessible Research Database (FORWARD).
In this study, the overall chance of having at least one seizure was 12% overall in Fragile X syndrome, 13.7% in males, and 6.2% in females.
Age of Onset and Resolution
In the group with seizures, the average age of the first seizure was 6.4 years of age with the great majority — 86.7% of males and 81.8% of females — having the first seizure before age 10.
The age of the last seizure followed a similar age dependence to the age of the first seizure, with 70.9% of seizures in males and 63.6% of seizures in females resolving by age 10.
Partial (focal) seizures were reported in 25% and generalized seizures in 31% of those with seizures, with febrile seizures in 8% and the remainder of seizures being of unknown type. Males and females did not show a different distribution of seizure types.
Association of Seizures with Other Fragile X Syndrome Characteristics
As compared to individuals with Fragile X syndrome without seizures in FORWARD, those with seizures were more likely to have more severe intellectual disability, current sleep apnea, delayed acquisition of expressive language, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), hyperactivity, irritability, and stereotyped movements.
Treatment and Medications
Treatment and management of seizures in Fragile X syndrome is similar to seizure treatment in other conditions associated with seizures. There is no Fragile X syndrome-specific medication or approach to treating seizures. A person with seizures is usually treated with medications, known as anticonvulsants, after two (or sometimes more if there is a long time between seizures) seizures.