The above is NOT the typical daily event of Tracy yelling at Mouse for yet again some Three Stooges type of antics. No, the above monologue is a typical part of our day with our friend James. Tracy and I look at each other, both thinking, it must have been a rough day at school for this guy.
This Coffee Talk is dedicated to a discussion of verbal perseveration (VP), a very typical and pervasive aspect of language in Fragile X syndrome. Does VP interfere with daily living and activities? You bet your boots it can! At home, school, after school activities, transition times: VP can have an impact on them all. On the list of questions parents ask, verbal perseveration is at the top. Let’s start with some basic information.
Why do we think VP occurs? We think VP occurs for several reasons. A higher level of anxiety leading to overarousal in different situations may impact the ability to quickly and spontaneously formulate language responses or to partake in a conversation. Verbal perseveration is most likely to occur in states of hyperarousal, during which the brain is less likely to be able to be planful, activate “stop” mechanisms and very likely to produce automatic, habitual behaviors.
What you hear as perseveration is the brain being “stuck” on an oft-used sentence or idea. What you hear may be reflective of the child’s interests, or perhaps a “power phrase,” heard in an emotionally-charged context and reinforced (e.g. you’re fired)! The content of James’ example above is also an obvious window into his internal state. Thus, we think of VP as a telltale sign of reduced internal coping with overarousal.
Joshua is entering a special needs class at the local community college. When interacting with us, he appears cool as a cucumber, telling us about the school he’s going to and how he’s going to get there. Every now and then we hear him whisper to himself, “I’m doing ok. I’m alright…I’m doing ok. I’m alright… I’m doing ok. I’m alright…” Joshua’s verbal perseveration is a little different. He’s aware that he’s somewhat anxious in this situation, and he’s actually using VP to self-calm.
Anxiety for him is the tip of the overarousal iceberg. He knows that if he is anxious, he needs to try to maintain calm, or the anxiety will turn into full blown overarousal where he can no longer self-manage it.
Wally loves to come to Denver for lunch at the Italian Restaurant. This is a highlight experience for us, as we join him. Wally is happy to tell us about his job at the fast food restaurant, about shopping and doing exercise videos. After he has run through this list of daily topics that he has learned to use in conversation, he will begin to talk about his love of soap operas. Here is where we always start to hear his perseverations. He begins by saying, “I like soap operas. Did you see Days of our Lives? Oh that Marlena, she is so pretty.” However, soon after he starts down his perseverative path of negative emotionality.
Wally doesn’t perseverate so much with phrases or words, as with negative emotional tone. “Those soap operas are so sad. No one can stay married. They are so bad…It is so sad…oh, how I hate it.” Now, he is stuck in negativity land, and any conversation topic is about how hard, bad and sad things are. Wow, did I say this was a fun lunch? We need to employ some of our sage strategies to turn this around!
Ok, so perseveration happens. Sure, it presents itself in the language area, in the domain of the speech language pathologist, but the origin is seated in the domain of the occupational therapist and medication manager. VP is the prime example of why everyone needs to work together to solve the issues making life challenging for our FX kids. From our perspective, here are some of the interventions we have found useful in managing VP.